タグ別アーカイブ: 英語 学習法

Last ESL Recommendation! Please Check It Out!

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

Take your coats and jackets out, I think this year, we will skip autumn and straight to winter because of how cold it is!

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/japan-to-give-some-travel-agencies-more-subsidies-on-growing-demand

Following the Go-To Campaign that started months ago, there is an increasing number of  travel agencies that are planning to add more to accommodate the rise in demand. I heard from a friend that even in central Tokyo, people choose to book hotels and restaurants to have a sort of “staycation”, where people stay in hotels as a vacation. I think as long as people observe proper hygiene and social distancing, there wouldn’t be any issues, however, what’s your opinion about this?

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Rebus:

Here’s a brief explanation of the hint:

Well, the letters go from H to O, and the word “to” can be pronounced as “two”, as well, which means it could be written as “H2O”. In chemistry, that would be “water”!

Were you able to figure out the answer?

 

Here’s for this week’s rebus:

 

540SAFETY319

 

HINT: This is a little trickier than the last one. As you can see, there are numbers on both sides of the word “safety”. Don’t think too much about what the numbers could mean, instead, focus on how they are positioned and where they are.

This will be the last rebus and from next week, we’ll have a new activity!

Also, I’ll reveal the answer next week!

 

ー続いてー

 

Today’s ESL Recommendation:

https://www.instagram.com/

 

For the past few months, I have given a lot of recommendations on how to study English on your free time, even if it’s just a 5-minute break time or a commute from home to work. The last one would be, as what you may have seen above, Instagram! I recently discovered that this social media platform offers a lot of accounts and videos about learning English that are explained in Japanese. Most of them are casual phrases, but I think learning how to speak in those situations would be a good foundation before heading to speaking formally. Simply type “英語” in the search box and you’ll see a lot of learning resources!

From next week, we’ll start a new segment here!

I hope this helps!

 

Perfect for when you’re commuting or driving, here’s my weekly playlist recommendation:

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-54571630

Following my last recommendation, namely Instagram, the social platform is now enforcing influencers to clearly state if they got paid for the products they are advertising. The article was a bit vague regarding the reason, however, in my opinion, it is for the sake of being transparent and honest with consumers. This way, consumers would be more wary and cautious when it comes to what they spend their money on. 

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

分詞構文その3 主語・時制が異なる場合


こんにちは!

 

すっきりしないお天気が続きますね。
秋晴れはいつになることやら。。

 

さて、前回と前々回で、分詞構文の基本について説明しました。

分詞構文その1 分詞構文の作り方
分詞構文その2 分詞構文の意味

 

今回はちょっと発展的な分詞構文について説明します。

 


【主節より過去のことを表したい場合:完了形の分詞構文】

 

分詞構文とは、以下のような文章でしたね。

 

(Sleeping during math class), he was warned (by the teacher).
・・・・・・・・・・・・(S)  (V)

「数学の授業中に寝ていたので、彼は先生に注意された」

 

この文章の主節と、分詞構文の副詞節(Sleeping~)の時制は同じですね。

分詞構文の時制が主節の時制より過去の場合は、分詞構文の動詞を完了形(Having been)の形に変えます。

 

***例1:主節が現在で、分詞構文がそれより前(過去)の時制***

Having lost my wallet yesterday, I have no money for lunch.

昨日財布を落としたので、ランチを食べるお金がない」

 

***例2:主節が過去で、分詞構文がそれより前(大過去)の時制***

Having lost my wallet last week, I couldn’t help but refuse the invitation for drinking.

先週財布をなくしてしまったので、飲みの誘いを断らざるを得なかった。」

 

あくまで主節を基準として、それより前になるかどうかというのがポイントです。

 


【主語が異なる場合 独立分詞構文】

 

分詞構文と主節の主語が異なる場合を説明します。

 

She was reading a book, (having a cup of coffee).
(S)  (V)   (O)

「彼女はコーヒーを飲みながら本を読んでいた」

 

この文章は、分詞構文で省略されているところを接続詞+主語で補うと、下の文章になります。

She was reading a book, having a cup of coffee.
=She was reading a book (while she was) having a cup of coffee.

コーヒーを飲むのも、本を読むのも主語は「彼女」”She”ですね。

このように、分詞構文の主語は本文の主語と一致します。

 

分詞構文の主語が本文の主語と異なる場合、下の文のように、分詞構文の前にそのまま主語を置きます。

She was reading a book, her cat sleeping by her.

彼女は本を読んでいて、は彼女のそばで寝ていた」

 

分詞構文で省略されているところを補うと、下の文章になります。
(=She was reading a book (and) her cat (was) sleeping by her.)

 

このような文章を「独立分詞構文」といいます。

分詞構文そのものがあまり口語的ではなく、書き言葉メインの表現ですが、この独立分詞構文はより文語的です。

 

慣用的な独立分詞構文表現として“weather permitting”というものがあります。
意味は「天候が許せば」で、文末に置かれることが多いです。

We will start construction work tomorrow, weather permitting.

「天候が許せば、明日から工事を開始します」

 


今日は分詞構文の発展的な使い方について説明しました。

それではまた!

Introducing MOOCs!

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

Fortunately, the typhoon didn’t hit Tokyo and changed its course.

I hope you stay dry and warm today!

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/2-remote-japan-towns-seek-to-host-nuclear-waste-storage-site

Something alarming for this week’s domestic article. As many of you are aware, there have been problems with where the permanent disposal site of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima would be. Two small towns in Hokkaido have said that they will host and in return, they would receive subsidies from the government. This is concerning for the people living in those areas, but personally speaking, are you for or against this?

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Rebus:

Here’s a brief explanation of the hint:

 

The word in the middle is underlined, which would mean that it is being emphasized or focused on. This answer to this puzzle would be “middled aged”, meaning people between 45 to 65 years old. Were you able to get it right?

Here’s for this week’s rebus:

 

HIJKLMNO

 

HINT: This one is a little tricky! If you’re interested in science and chemistry, this one would be easy for you!

I’ll reveal the answer next week!

 

ー続いてー

 

Today’s ESL Recommendation:

https://www.coursera.org/

 

This would be most beneficial for those who want to expand their skill set in English. This website offers hundreds of MOOCS, which are basically online courses. They have business courses, as well as liberal arts, social sciences, and medicine. Perhaps this would be best paired with linguee, DeepL, and vocabulary.com. I know that I recommend it every week, but I can’t stress enough how helpful these resources are.

I hope this helps!

 

I’ve been in a K-Pop mood lately, so here’s this week’s playlist inspired from that:

 

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200925-how-screen-time-affects-childrens-brains

This article piqued my interest as it tackles screen time and children. It talks about the benefits and drawbacks of being exposed to screens at a young age. I think the most important thing I was able to take out of this article was that it’s not that children using tablets is harmful, as long as the content they’re watching/being exposed to is kid-friendly and adults are supervising/monitoring how much time they spend.

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

分詞構文その2 分詞構文の意味


こんにちは!

 

ちょっと前に暑かったのに、もう寒いですね。。
体調管理気をつけましょう!

 

さて、前回は分詞構文とは何かについて、ざっくり説明しました。
今週は分詞構文の意味について、説明します。

 


【分詞構文の意味1 時】

まずはよく使われる、時を表す分詞構文です。
「〜している時」「〜している間」の意味となり、When節やWhile節と言い換えが可能です。

 

(Driving to the University), I saw a friend of mine [walking down the street].
・・・・・・・・・・..//.(S)(V)   (O)

「学校へ車で向かっていると、友達が道を歩いているのが見えました」

 

これは、学校へ向かっている最中の出来事なので、While節と言い換え可能です。

 

Driving to the University, I saw a friend of mine walking down the street.
=While I was driving to the University, I saw a friend of mine walking down the street.

下の文を見てもらえれば分かりますが、下の文の”While I was”の部分は後ろの主節をみれば分かるので省略しているわけですね。

 

ちなみに主節の[walking down the street]は、前の名詞句”a friend of mine”を修飾しています。分詞の形容詞的な用法ですね。

 


【分詞構文の意味2 原因・理由】

原因や理由の意味になる場合、AsやBecause、Sinceなどと言い換え可能です。
「〜なので」「〜だから」のような意味になります。

 

(Being very tall), he hit his head (on the low ceiling of the basement).
・・・・・・/・(S)(V) (O)

「彼はとても背が高かったので、地下室の低い天井に頭をぶつけてしまった。」

 

Being very tall, he hit his head on the low ceiling of the basement.
=As he was very tall, he hit his head on the low ceiling of the basement.

これも下の文の”As he was”を”Being”一言で表したような形ですね

 

Being(もしくはHaving been)から始まる分詞構文は、普通この意味になります。

 


【分詞構文の意味3 付帯状況】

「付帯状況」と聞くと、その聴き慣れなさに拒否反応😨を起こす人もいるかもしれません。でも実はとても簡単です。

要するに「同じ時、状況で起こっている」ということです。

 

たとえば、「昨日はベットで横になり、お菓子食べながら、youtube見ていた」という場合、「お菓子を食べている」と「youtubeを見ている」は「ベットに横になる」と同じ時、同じ状況で起きているわけですね。

 

I was lying (on the bed), (eating snacks), (watching videos on youtube).
(S) (V)

「昨日はベットで横になり、お菓子食べながら、youtube見ていた」

 

それにしても怠惰な文章ですね。。
私の休日は大体こんな感じです。。

 


 

今日は分詞構文の様々な意味について説明しました。
しかし、今日挙げた例はどれも主節の主語と分詞構文の主語が同じでしたね。
たとえばさっきの例なら、ベットに横になるのも、お菓子を食べるのも、youtube見るのも主語は”I”、「私」です。

 

なので、次回は分詞構文中の主語が主節と異なる場合を説明したいと思います。
あと、分詞構文と主節の間に時制のズレが発生する場合も説明します。

 

それではまた!

Tokyoites Can Now Avail The Go-To Campaign

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

October is here and we’re getting nearer to getting that winter vacation!

Have you made any plans already?

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/tokyo-added-to-travel-subsidy-program-as-discount-raised-to-50

This is something people living in Tokyo would be concerned with, and probably for those who live in the neighboring cities, too. Starting from October, people in Tokyo can avail the Go To Campaign and could get 50% off their travel fees at most. Looking back, Tokyo was removed from the campaign due to its high number of infected cases, however they had to bring Tokyo back due to the struggling economy. What’s your opinion about this?

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Rebus:

Here’s a brief explanation of the hint:

This phrase is “for once in my life” as there are 4 number 1’s inside the phrase “my life”. It is used to emphasize that something happens on a particular occasion and it has never happened before and  it may never happen again after. Here are some sample sentences:

“For once in my life, I would like to try traveling to Paris.”

-> This means that I have never been to Paris and after I go there, I might not be able to go back anymore. 

 

Here’s for this week’s rebus:

 

AGED AGED AGED

 

HINT: This one is super easy! Notice that the middle “AGED” has an underline. Maybe it’s for emphasis?

I’ll reveal the answer next week!

 

ー続いてー

 

Today’s ESL Recommendation:

https://breakingnewsenglish.com/

 

For today, this is a good reading resource both for beginners and advanced readers. They offer short articles on different topics and for various levels. After reading the articles, make sure you scroll down to check the activities they have. The activities include a listening practice, which would be great for input! This is a good opportunity to use both linguee.com and vocabulary.com

I hope this helps!

 

Here is this week’s study music that’s perfect for weather now:

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-54396670

Following the events that occurred a few days ago, specifically the debate between Biden and current president Trump, this is the most recent update on him. According to a lot of the on-going news, Trump has contracted the disease, together with the first lady, Melania Trump. Now, he is going to be hospitalized, but it hasn’t been disclosed how long he would have to stay there. What do you think about this?

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

分詞構文その1 分詞構文の作り方


こんにちは!

 

前回までで動詞をing形や過去分詞形にすることで、形容詞的な意味になる用法を説明しました。

 

今日は動詞をing系や過去分詞形にすることで、副詞的な意味を表す、分詞構文について説明します。

 


【そもそも副詞とは】

分詞構文は動詞をing形にすることで副詞的な意味を表すと説明しました。
では、そもそも副詞とは何かについて説明します。

 

副詞は修飾語です。

 

同じ修飾語でも、形容詞が名詞を修飾するのに対し、副詞は「名詞以外」を修飾します。

具体的には「動詞・形容詞・他の副詞・節全体」などです。

 

I don’t (really) like natto.
(S)     (V) (O)

「納豆はあまり好きではありません」

 

上記のように、副詞reallyが動詞likeを修飾し「あまり好きではない」という形になっています。

 

副詞が何かわかったところで、分詞構文について説明しましょう。

 


【分詞構文とは】

まずは分詞構文の文の例を見てみましょう。

 

(Watching the movie), I heard the phone ringing.
・・・・・・・・・(S) (V)  (O)   (C)

「映画を見ていると、電話が鳴っているのが聞こえた」

 

“Watching the movie”のように、動詞Watchのing形が導く副詞句が、後ろの節全体を修飾しています。

 

上の文章は、以下の従位接続詞を使った文章と同じ意味です。

 

Watching the movie, I heard the phone ringing.”
=”While I was watching the movie, I heard the phone ringing.”

 

要するに、下のWhile節(副詞節)をぎゅっと縮めて副詞句の形にしたのが、上の文章です。

ここでは「〜している時に」という意味を表しています。

 

分詞構文は書き言葉でよく出てきます。

単純に、書き言葉ではシンプルに短い方が分かりやすいからですね。

 


【過去分詞の場合】

過去分詞を使った分詞構文の例も挙げておきましょう。

 

(Advised by the doctor), he decided to stop smoking.
・・・・・・・・・・・(S) (V)    (O)

「医者に忠告されたため、彼は煙草を止めることに決めた。」

 

最初の副詞句”Advised by the doctor”が後ろの節全体を修飾していますね。

 

これは以下の文に書き換えられます。

 

Advised by the doctor, he decided to stop smoking.”
=”Because he was advised by the doctor, he decided to stop smoking.”

 

ここではBecause節が省略されて副詞句になっていますね。

下の文のBecause節(従属節)が受動態なので、分詞構文にした時に過去分詞形になります。

 


本日は分詞構文についてざっくりと説明しました。
次回は様々な意味や、少し特殊な使い方に関して説明します。

それではまた!

分詞その3 知覚動詞・使役動詞と分詞


こんにちは!

前回前々回で現在分詞と過去分詞を形容詞的に使う方法を紹介しました。

今日は分詞を知覚動詞使役動詞と使う方法を紹介します。

 


【知覚動詞】

知覚動詞というのは、そのまんまですが、人間の知覚を表す動詞です。
たとえばfeel(感じる)see(見える)hear(聞こえる)look at(眺める)smell(匂う)などですね。

 

他にもいろいろありますが、seeの例を挙げてみましょう。

 

I saw him enter the building.
(S)(V)(O)   (C)

「私は彼がそのビルに入るのを見た」

 

こんな感じで、seeやfeelなどの知覚動詞を使ってSVOCの文型を作ると「OがCするのを見る」「OがCするのを感じる」などの形を作ることができます。

 

なお、”enter the building”の部分は不定詞のtoが省略されて隠れています。
原形不定詞というもので、Vの部分が知覚動詞や、次に説明する使役動詞の場合は、Cの部分の不定詞のtoは省略できることになっています。

 

さて、上の文のCの部分のenterを現在分詞にすると、進行形的な「OがCしているのを見る/聞く/感じる」といった意味にすることができます。

I saw him entering the building.
(S)(V)(O)    (C)

「私は彼がそのビルに入っていくのを見た」

 

もちろん過去分詞を置くこともできます。
その場合はCの部分が受動的な「CされたOを見る/聞く/感じる」などの意味になります。

She heard the song sung by her children.
(S) (V)  (O)     (C)

「彼女は子どもたちが歌を歌うのを聞いた」

 


【使役動詞】

使役動詞は「OにCさせる」という意味の文で、同じくSVOCの形を取ります。
make,let,have,getなどがあります。

 

不定詞をCに置く場合は知覚動詞と同じで、toを省略できます。

The teacher made him stand on the corridor (as a punishment).
・・・(S)  (V) (O)    (C)

「先生は罰として彼を廊下に立たせた」

 

これも同じようにCの場所に現在分詞を置いて「OをCの状態にさせておく」という意味にできます。

 

The teacher made him standing on the corridor (throughout his class).
・・(S)   (V) (O)    (C)

「先生は授業中ずっと彼を廊下に立たせた」

 

もちろん過去分詞も置けます。

Oに対して受動的な意味になります。

Could you let the wine kept cool?
(助)(S) (V) (O)   (C)

「ワインを冷やしておいてくれませんか?」

 


今日は分詞のちょっと特殊な用法を解説しました。
使役動詞や知覚動詞が使いこなせると表現の幅がグッと広がるはずです。

それではまた!

Flying Cars by 2050? Think Again.

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

There will be a typhoon here in Japan over the weekend.

Make sure to stock up on food and daily necessities!

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/japan-sees-week-low-312-virus-cases-tourist-spots-busy-on-holidays

This quick report says that people over the long weekend, Silver Week to be exact, have gone out to the tourist spots in Tokyo. Although alcohol-serving restaurants still closed at 10 PM, it didn’t affect the number of people who went out to stroll around the city. Others have expressed their concern regarding the current pandemic, but how about you? Do you think it’s good that people are becoming more relaxed about this or should people remain vigilant as they were a few months ago?

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Rebus:

Here’s a brief explanation of the hint:

When you parent gets really angry at you and they want to explain what you did wrong and what you need to work on in order to be a better person, they would start with this phrase. Notice that the word “sit” is below and “shut” is above, and another word for “below” and “above”, would be “down” and “up”. In other words, it would be “sit down and shut up”.

 

Here’s for this week’s rebus:

 

 

M1Y L1I1F1E

 

HINT: This one’s a little difficult. This phrase has 5 words and the first word would be how many 1’s there are in this phrase. There’s “four”, right? And it sounds like the word “for”, so it would be like this “For on__ i_ m_ l___”. Good luck!

I’ll reveal the answer next week!

 

ー続いてー

Today’s ESL Recommendation:

https://www.gamestolearnenglish.com/

Something fun and kid-friendly for this week!

Following last week’s interactive recommendation that’s available on your phone would be this website! It’s more for those who would like to learn English through fun, simple games. It has a variety of topics to choose from, which would be good for both children and adults. They have topics like jobs and food which would be good for young learners or beginner-level students, and more difficult ones like perfect tenses and phrasal verbs for more advanced students. Try it out and see for yourself!

I’d like to add that I don’t think this works on the phone, so you’d have to try it out on your computer.

 

Here is this week’s study music that’s perfect for the rainy weather:

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200922-how-london-could-achieve-net-zero-carbon-by-2050

Here’s a look into what the UK is planning to do in order to achieve a net zero carbon emission by 2050. “Net Zero Carbon” means that their buildings, public utility vehicles, electricity, irrigation, etc., emit no carbon dioxide. This means a more environmentally-friendly society. I think this would be a really difficult task to complete especially because it would have to sacrifice profit and economic growth. However, if it is for the good of earth, then making sacrifices shouldn’t be so bad.

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

分詞その2 過去分詞


こんにちは!

 

前回は現在分詞について説明しました。

今日は、動詞を過去分詞形にして、名詞にくっつけることで形容詞の役割をする「過去分詞」を解説します。

 


【現在分詞の復習】

過去分詞の前に、前回の現在分詞をささっと復習します。

 

現在分詞は、動詞をing形にすることで、形容詞の役割を持たせることができました。

意味は名詞〇〇にくっついて「〜している〇〇」でしたね。

 

「寝ている猫」なら”a sleeping cat”でしたね。
一語で修飾できるときは前から修飾します。

I took a picture [of a sleeping cat].
(S)(V)  (O)

 

 

「ネズミを追いかけている猫」なら、2語以上なので後ろから修飾して、”A cat chasing a mouse”ですね。

I saw a cat chasing a mouse!
(S)(V)    (O)

「猫がネズミを追いかけているのを見ました!」

 

※現代では猫がネズミを追っかけているのを見るのはなかなかレアかもしれません。。

 


【過去分詞の用法】

たとえば、「私の盗まれた財布が見つかった」という文を書きたいとします。
主語は「私の盗まれた財布」ですね。

「盗む」”steal”を過去分詞にして財布”wallet”にくっつけて”My stolen wallet“にします。

 

My stolen wallet has found.
・・・(S)    (V)

「私の盗まれた財布が見つかった」

 

こんな感じで、動詞を過去分詞形にして名詞にくっつければ、名詞〇〇を修飾して「〜された〇〇」という意味になるわけですね。

 


【修飾部が2語以上になる場合】

前回の現在分詞同様、2語以上になる場合は前からではなく後ろから修飾します。

 

The book [written by the rookie author] became a million seller.
・・(S)               (V)    (C)

「その新人作家の書いた本(書かれた本)はミリオンセラーになった」

 

 

The scenery [seen from the windows of this room] was superb.
・・(S)                   (V) (C)

「この部屋の窓から見た景色(見えた景色)は最高でした」

 

品詞分解の際は、[ ]で形容詞句を括ります。

形容詞句がなんなのかわからない方はこちらのブログをご覧ください。

 


今日は形容詞として働く過去分詞を解説しました。

それではまた!

Recent Updates With Thailand and Japan

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

The Silver Week is just around the corner! Have you made any plans? Perhaps a staycation would be nice?

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/another-tokyo-urban-landmark-closing-down-this-time-the-home-of-shinjuku%E2%80%99s-giant-yunika-vision

Together with the closure of some iconic infrastructures in Tokyo, like the Sega game center and Tsukumo Akihabara PC parts shop both found in Akihabara, the next one to close would be the Labi building in Shinjuku. This must be because of the continuous decline in sales and the costs have remained the same, if not increasing. People have mixed reviews with this. Some have said that they’re saddened by this news as it is one of the few major landmarks of Tokyo, but some said it’s good riddance because of the noise/light pollution it causes.

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Rebus:

Here’s a brief explanation of the hint:

The word “MOUNT” is repeated ten times, and if you say the words “mount” and “ten” after it, you would come up with the word, “mountain”! Were you able to get it?

 

Here’s for this week’s rebus:

SHUT

SIT

HINT: When your parent is really, really angry at you, this is what would command you to do before they tell scold you.

I’ll reveal the answer next week!

 

ー続いてー

Today’s ESL Recommendation:

https://www.memrise.com/

Something fun and interactive for this week’s recommendation!

This is memrise, which can be used both as a phone application and on your computer. I like both, but I would prefer its phone version as I like to study languages even when I’m on the go. What I like about it is that for Japanese people who are learning English, it has voiceover in native speed and pronunciation, the translation of every word in a phrase, as well as what it would mean in your native tongue. Of course, it has a basic account, but you could also subscribe for a monthly fee to be able to access all the available features. Good luck and enjoy!

 

Here is this week’s study music:

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-54182002?intlink_from_url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world/asia&link_location=live-reporting-story

Today’s story focuses on a girl from Thailand who stood in front of the masses to speak up to injustices she has witnessed. She delivered an open challenge to the monarchy in Thailand, which she could be sentenced for 15 years if the officials choose to do so. This is because in Thailand, they have the lese-majeste law, which means a citizen cannot insult the royalty in that country. This law exists in some European and Asian countries to this day. Read more on her bravery and what we should be looking forward to in the coming days.

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo