タグ別アーカイブ: 英語 初心者

比較2 比較級・最上級の基本


こんにちは!

 

今日は比較級と最上級について説明します。

実用的な使い方や様々な表現は次回以降にしますので、今日は基本的な用法について説明します。

 


【比較級の基本】

 

比較級は、2つのものの間で程度を比べるときに使います。

たとえば田中さんと本田さんの背の高さを比べて、田中さんの方がより背が高いことを表現したいときは、以下のようになります。

 

[例1]
Mr.Tanaka is taller than Mr.Honda.
田中さんは本田さんより背が高い

 

比較を使わず、ただ田中さんが背が高いことを表現する場合は以下のようになります。

 

[例1′]
Mr.Tanaka is tall.
田中さんは背が高い

 

例1’の形容詞”tall”「背が高い」が、例1の比較の文になると”taller”になっています。
このように、比較する文になると、形容詞や副詞の形が変化します。
これを「比較級」と言い、「A 比較級+than B」で、「BよりAの方がより〜」という表現になります。

 

比較級に関しては、形容詞や副詞の前に”more”をつけるパターンもあります。
2音節以上の語や、-lyで終わる副詞はこの形になります。

 

[例2  2音節以上の語]
This car is more expensive than that one.
この車はあの車より高い

 

[例3  -lyで終わる副詞]
He walks more slowly than I.
彼は私よりゆっくり歩く。

 

さらに、不規則変化の比較級もあります。
これは最上級とあわせて、後で説明します。

 


【最上級の基本】

最上級は、「いくつかのものの中で1番〜」を表す表現です。
たとえば、富士山が日本で1番高い山であることを表す場合は以下のような文になります。

 

[例4]
Mt. Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan.
富士山は日本で最も高い山です。

 

形容詞”high”の後ろに”-est”がついて”highest”になっています。
このように、最上級の文でも形容詞や副詞が変化します。
基本形は「A (the)+最上級+in(of) B」で「AはBの中で1番〜」となります。

 

最上級は、形容詞や副詞の前に”most”をつけるパターンもあります。
比較級と同様、2音節以上の語や、-lyで終わる副詞はこの形になります。

 

[例5  2音節以上の語]
I think this is the most useful way of all the proposed plans.
これが提案されたすべての計画の中で最も有用な方法だと思います。

 


【比較級・最上級の変化まとめ】

 

ここまでの説明で、比較級・最上級の変化が似ていることが分かったと思います。

ここで、それぞれの変化についてまとめますね。

 

①規則変化[-er -estのタイプ]

1音節語はこのタイプ

[例]
big – bigger – biggest
weak – weaker – weakest
high – higher – highest

2音節語でもこの変化をするものがあります。
clever – cleverer – cleverest など
bright – brighter – brightest

 

②規則変化[more mostをつけるタイプ]

基本は2音節以上の語と、-lyのつく副詞です。
ただし2音節の語は①のパターンの場合があります。

[例]
popular – more popular – most popular
beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful
diligently – more diligently – most diligently

 

③不規則変化

さて、最後に不規則変化の語についてまとめておきます。
数は多く無いので覚えてしまいましょう!

[例]
good / well – better – best
bad / ill / badly – worse – worst
many / much – more – most
little – less – least

 


本日は比較級・最上級の基本について解説しました。
次回以降、比較表現をゴリゴリ掘り下げていく予定です。

それではまた!

Find Out Indonesia’s Approach To The Pandemic

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

The state of emergency is not extended to Gifu, Tochigi, Hyogo, Kyoto, and Fukuoka.

Please be careful!

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/suga-announces-new-measures-to-stem-virus-surge-including-fines-review-of-medical-system

Following last week’s article, we are focusing on the PM’s advances regarding the pandemic. PM Suga has asked bar and restaurant owners to close by 8 PM and those who do not abide will be publicly announced and listed. In addition to that, the PM will impose a fine (罰金). He has not disclosed (打ち明ける) how much it would be, but this would be strictly implemented, he said.

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Fill-In-The-Blanks Quiz: 

 

Here’s last week’s song:

 

(Fast forward to 01:07)

 

We’re like diamonds  in the sky; I knew that we’d become one right away

Oh, right away; At first sight I felt the energy of sun rays

I saw the life inside  your eyes; So shine bright, tonight you and I

We’re beautiful like diamonds in the sky; Eye to eye, so alive

 

Here’s this week’s song:

(Fast forward to 00:55)

 

Here comes bad news ______ this and that

Well ____ me all you got, don’t ____ back

Well I should _____ warn you I’ll be just fine

No ______ to you don’t _____ your time

Here’s why

 

ー続いてー

Today’s Youtube Recommendation:

 

This is more of something casual and inspirational. This is Leah Wei, a Youtuber based in Canada. She uses easy-to-understand English, so following what she’s saying would be easy, and what she usually talks about is something fun and highly entertaining! She usually talks about what has happened over the week, as well as some pieces of advice and tips. Also, she’s vegan, so if you want to be healthier for the year 2021, following her videos would give you some recipes on what to make the next time you want to cook something scrumptious (美味しい), yet healthy!

 

This is her latest vlog:

Good luck!

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-55620356

Apart from US President’s Trump’s second impeachment, which by the way is a first in US history, Indonesia will start vaccinations very soon. However, their approach to it is the polar opposite of most, if not all, countries. They would start vaccinating the younger population and their reasoning behind it is that the younger generation is more active compared to the elderly. They are aiming for herd immunity (集団免疫), which means that at least 60-70% of the population must be vaccinated. Another concern they’ve raised is that whether the vaccine is halal or not. Chinese pharmaceutical company disclosed that while it doesn’t have pig, it has monkeys in the vaccine.

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

Tech Giants Taking Political Steps

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

Happy Sunday! Right now, we have the long weekend! I hope you’re able to take the time off to relax, but still be safe.

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/fraught-history-haunts-japan-virus-vaccine-roll-out

I have asked a lot of my friends about what they think of the vaccines against Coronavirus. A few of them have said they’ll get vaccinated, but some have voiced out their concern regarding why Japan has not made their own vaccine, and at the same time, their reluctance (不本意) to get vaccinated. Apparently, it relates back to previous incidents that has happened in Japan and vaccines. Read more into it and let me know if you agree or disagree.

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Fill-In-The-Blanks Quiz: 

 

Here’s last week’s song:

(Fast forward to 02:30)

 

I tiptoe, too slow; Out of the door to your house

I know you know; That this way leads me out

Outside, too bright; You’re within I’m without

You’re within

 

Here’s this week’s song:

(Fast forward to 01:07)

 

We’re like ________  in the sky; I knew that we’d ______ one right away

Oh, right away; At first ___ I felt the energy of sun rays

I saw the life ______  your eyes; So shine ______, tonight you and I

We’re _______ like diamonds in the sky; Eye to eye, so ____

 

ー続いてー

Today’s Youtube Recommendation:

 

When I’m commuting, I always listen to music because I like to appreciate good music or songs I enjoy listening to. However, I’m also interested in trying out new things. So, in case you’re someone like me, I highly recommend theneedledrop, who rates and comments on new (and old) albums! He gives detailed descriptions of different albums, which would be good for vocabulary and sentence construction!

This is what I suggest you start with:

 

Good luck!

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/09/955329265/amazon-and-apple-drop-parler

Following the events that occurred a few days ago in the US, major social platforms and companies are dropping those who did not do enough to prevent it from happening. For example, tech giants like Amazon and Apple are making the application “Parler” unavailable on their stores. They said it’s because Parler management didn’t filter and prevent those who grouped to protest. On another note, Twitter has permanently banned Trump’s account. What do you think of major companies taking a political step? Are you for or against it?

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

比較1 as ~ as … 原級比較


こんにちは!

 

今日からは比較について説明していきます。
比較をマスターすると、かなり奥が深い表現ができるようになります。

 

洋書を読んでいるとかなりの頻度で比較表現が出てきます。
英文をスラスラ読むことに憧れている人は、是非とも比較をマスターしましょう。

 

今日は、原級比較の基本についてざっくり説明します。


【原級比較 as ~ as】

 

原級比較は、「A as 形容詞/副詞 as B」で
「AはBと同じくらい〜」の意味を表します。

 

[例1]
Linda is as smart as Michel.

リンダはミシェルと同じくらい頭がいい

 

[例2]
John speaks English as fluently as a native speaker.

ジョンはネイティブスピーカーと同じくらい流暢に英語を話す

 

例1では形容詞のsmartが使われています。
動詞がBe動詞なので、後ろに形容詞がきているわけですね。
文型は第2文型のSVCで、”smart”がC(補語)になります。

例2では、asの前で第3文型SVOが完成しています。
なので、asの後ろには副詞の”fluently”がきています。
なのでas以降は副詞扱いになります。

 

また、以下のように、比較対象の後ろの動詞は省略されています。
省略されずに出てくることもあるので注意しましょう。

 

[例1′]
Linda is as smart as Michel (is).

[例2′]
John speaks English as fluently as a native speaker (does).

 


【否定形 not as ~ as】

 

否定形にすると、”not as ~ as …”の形になり、
「…ほど〜ではない」という意味になります。

 

[例3]
He doesn’t work as diligently as Lisa.

彼はリサほど勤勉に働かない。

 

また、この否定のパターンでよくあるのが、
「主語と比較対象が同じ」パターンです。

 

[例4]
He doesn’t work as diligently as he used to.

彼は以前(の彼)ほど勤勉に働かない。

 

世の中、「同じ」を表すことより「違い」を表すことの方が多いのではないでしょうか。
実は原級比較も、否定語を伴って使われることがかなり多いです。
是非とも否定の原級比較を使いこなせるようになりましょう。

 


【as ~ as … の考え方】

 

“as ~ as …”の文を、言葉の塊ごとに区切ってみましょう。

 

Linda is / as smart / as Michel (is).

 

それぞれのasが接着剤の役割をしているとイメージするとわかりやすいかもしれません。個人的に、以下のように2つのasで形容詞/副詞を囲むという考え方はお勧めしません。

 

△Linda is / as smart as / Michel (is).

 

そもそもasには、比較の時だけではなく接着剤的な用法があり、そのイメージの延長として捉えると比較表現がすっと腑に落ちてくるようになると思います。

 

たとえば、”when”のような意味を持つ”as”があります(同時性のas)
このasは「〜している時」「〜するとすぐに」の意味を持ち、
asを介した前後の時間が「同じ」であることを表しています。

 

[例5]
A strange man spoke to me as I entered the room.

部屋に入るとすぐに、見知らぬ男が話しかけてきた

 

もちろん、”as”は同時性や同格を表すような意味ばかりではなく、理由や逆接を表すこともあるので一概には言えませんが、”as”を接着剤のように理解するのは同格を理解する上で助けになると思います。

 


本日はas ~ as … の原級比較について説明しました。

それではまた来週!

Are We Off To A Good Start?

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

Happy 2021! Unfortunately, the year has already started facing a lot of terrible news from several parts of the world. Let’s start with local news.

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/Suga-to-declare-state-of-emergency-for-Tokyo-3-neighboring-prefectures-on-Thursday-night-until-Feb-7

Before 2020 ended, PM Suga has announced stricter rules with regard to incoming travelers. Only those from selected countries can enter the country AND they must either have a permanent or a working VISA. From tonight onward, Tokyo, together with other neighboring cities, are again, under a state of emergency. This state of emergency is less strict compared to the one last year, however, shops and restaurants are asked to close at 8 PM. Also, schools and universities are not asked to close. According to this news website, those who will follow would be able to receive a compensation of up to 60,000 yen, and those who don’t will be publicly announced. What do you think of the PM’s current decision?

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Fill-In-The-Blanks Quiz: 

Here’s last week’s song:

(Fast forward to 0:09)

 

A little chance encounter, Could be the one you’ve waited for

Just squeeze a bit more

Tonight we’re on a mission, tonight’s the casting call

If this is the real audition, oh, God, help us all

 

Here’s this week’s song:

(Fast forward to 02:30)

 

I _____, too slow; Out of the door to your house

I ____ you ____; That this way _____ me out

Outside, too ______; You’re ________ I’m without

You’re _______

 

ー続いてー

 

Today’s Youtube Recommendation:

 

 

For today, my recommendation is a channel called “JCS – Criminal Psychology”. This video has easy to moderate vocabulary, but the speaking speed is natural, so it is quite fast. I suggest going through the difficult parts several times to be able to understand completely what they’re saying. In this channel, the narrator talks about different convicted people who are guilty of varying crimes. It talks about their interview, different verbal  and non-verbal cues, mannerisms, etc. It’s very interesting, especially because you get to understand how different people communicate when they feel guilty or anxious.

This is what I most recently saw:

 

Good luck!

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/jan/06/capitol-mob-police-trump-george-floyd-protests-photos

This just in, a lot of Trump supporters have breached privacy by forcefully going in The Capitol, which is the meeting place of the US’ legislative branch. The reason for their action is because they don’t believe in the election results. Instead, they believe that the results were unfair and unjust. This link shows the distinction/differences between the protest that happened earlier today and the one for Black Lives Matter back in June. There are pictures on the link showing how the government has treated the two protests differently. What do you think?

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

エリッククラプトンで仮定法 ~Tears in Heaven~


明けましておめでとうございます!
本年もよろしくお願いいたします。

 

新年一発目ですので、いつもの文法ブログとは少し趣向を変えて、エリッククラプトンの“Tears In Heaven”の歌詞を取り上げてみようと思います。

 

息子を亡くした悲しみと向き合う歌詞で、
Aメロに仮定法過去の表現が出てきます。
今回はAメロとBメロの歌詞をピックアップしました。

 

 


Tears In Heaven
Eric Clapton

Would you know my name
if I saw you in heaven?
Would it be the same
if I saw you in heaven?

I must be strong and carry on
‘cause I know I don’t belong
here in heaven

Would you hold my hand
if I saw you in heaven?
Would you help me stand
if I saw you in heaven?

I’ll find my way
through night and day
‘cause I know I just can’t stay
here in heaven

 

天国にいる君に会ったら
君は僕の名前を覚えているだろうか?
天国にいる君に会ったら
君はあの頃と同じ姿だろうか?

僕は強くなって、これからも人生を続けていかなくてはいけない
だから、天国は僕の居る場所ではないんだ

天国にいる君に会ったら
君は僕の手を握ってくれるだろうか?
天国にいる君に会ったら
君は僕を支えてくれるだろうか?

僕は自分の進む道を見つけるよ
昼も夜も
だから、僕は天国に居ることはできないんだ

 


 

1番2番ともにAメロの”Would you~?”から、Bメロの”I must~”、”I’ll~”へ、
助動詞が過去形から現在形に変わっていきます。
ここがこの曲の歌詞のポイントです。

Aメロは仮定法で、「もしも天国の君に会えたら」と、悲しみを引きずっています。
一転、Bメロでは直説法になり、現実に立ち向かっていきます。
この対比が、この曲のなんとも言えない切なさを作り出しています。

 

「天国の息子に会えたら」という思いにとらわれているAメロ、悲しみから一歩踏み出し、天国の息子に優しく語りかけるように、「僕はまだそちらには行けないんだ」と歌うBメロ、いつ聴いても涙腺が緩みます。

 


去年はコロナで大変な一年でしたが、まだウイルスの脅威は続くみたいですね。
感染対策、気を引き締めていきましょう!

May this year be wonderful one for you!

 

Santas All Over the World!

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

Last week of 2020 and the new year is here.

Any plans for your winter vacation?

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/Japan-to-suspend-new-entry-of-all-nonresident-foreign-nationals-from-abroad

After the recent news about a new variant (変種) of the Coronavirus, Japan has decided to suspend entries from a number of countries. This will be effective from December 28 to late January, and in addition, Japan will also implement stricter rules with testing for COVID-19 for people entering the country. However, foreigners holding a resident VISA and people from Thailand, Vietnam, South Korea, and Taiwan are exempted from this ban.

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Fill-In-The-Blanks Quiz: 

Here’s last week’s song:

 

(Fast forward to 1:44)

But hearts are breaking, the wars are raging on

And I have taken my glasses off

You got me nervous, and you’re turning it into a joke

A half empty girl; Don’t make me laugh, I’ll….

 

Here’s this week’s song:

(From one of my favorite movies!)

(Fast forward to 0:09)

 

A little _____ encounter, Could be the one you’ve ______ for

Just ________ a bit more

_______ we’re on a mission, tonight’s the _______ call

If this is the real ________, oh, God, help us all

 

ー続いてー

 

Today’s Youtube Recommendation:

 

From this week onwards, I’ll be introducing a new segment in my blog posts. It’s undeniable that Youtube is a big and major part of language learning nowadays and their services are getting better, as some channels and videos on that platform are now offering translations. So, every week, I’ll be recommending Youtube channels that offer different topics. 

For this week, it’s a channel called “Cinema Summary”. I am a fan of movies and this channel discusses and explains different horror movies. I hate bloody scenes and horror movies, in general, so by watching this channel instead, it helps me find out what a specific movie is about and why it’s good.

This is what I most recently saw:

 

Good luck!

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.npr.org/2020/12/25/950265385/photos-christmas-around-the-world

For today’s international news, I decided to show this lighthearted article simply because Christmas happened just a few days ago. Christmas is widely celebrated all over the world and this article shows photos of how people celebrated. It’s interesting to see that people still try to see things positively, despite what’s happening in the world.

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo

仮定法2 倒置とwere to / should


こんにちは!

 

前回は、仮定法の基本について解説しました。

本日は仮定法の倒置と、were to / shouldをif節に用いた仮定法について解説します。

 


【ifの省略(倒置)】

 

以下のように仮定法の文は、if節と帰結節の組み合わせが基本でした。

[例文1]
If I were president, I couldn’t stand up to its heavy responsibility.

「もし私が大統領だったら、その責任の重さに耐えられないだろう」

 

上記のような仮定法の文は、Ifを抜いて主語と動詞を倒置することがあります。
特に書き言葉でよくみられます。

 

[例文1]
Were I president, I couldn’t stand up to its heavy responsibility.

「もし私が大統領だったら、その責任の重さに耐えられないだろう」

 

[例文2]
Had I stayed at home on that day, I would have been crushed under the collapsed house.
(=If I had stayed at home on that day, ~)

「その日家にいたら、倒壊した家に押しつぶされていただろう。」

 

ルールとして、語順を倒置可能なのはif節の動詞が”were””had””should”のみなので気をつけましょう。

※shouldの倒置例については次の次の項参照

 


【if節に”were to”】

if節が“If S were to V”となると、特別なニュアンスが付加されます。
まず一つ目は、可能性が限りなく低いことを仮想して、”それが起こったらこうなる”というニュアンスです。

 

[were to 1 / 可能性が限りなく低い]

*例文
If all the human were to disappear suddenly, what would the world change?

「もしすべての人間が突然姿を消したとしたら、世界はどう変わるでしょうか?」

 

二つ目は、“If you were to V”の形で、丁寧なお願いのニュアンスになります。

これは1の可能性が限りなく低いニュアンスを考えてみるとわかると思いますが、相手が「お願いをきいてくれる」ことを当たり位前と考えておらず、「もしも(万が一)やってくれるのであれば」というニュアンスになり、丁寧になります。

 

[were to 2 / 丁寧なお願い]

*例1
If you were to come to see my son, he would be very happy.

「もしあなたが私の息子に会いに来てくれたら、息子は大喜びでしょう」

*例2
We would be very helpful if you were donate some money.

「幾らかお金を寄付してくだされば、とても助かります」

 


【if節に”should”】

if節にshouldが入った形は、「万一〜ならば」という推量のニュアンスが加わります。

なお、shouldはshallの過去形ですので、「If S should V(原形)」で仮定法過去として機能します。

 

[例1]
if you should change your mind, you could contact us anytime.

「もし(万が一)気が変わったら、いつでもご連絡ください」

 

[例2]
If you should die, I couldn’t bear with the sorrow.

「(万が一)あなたが死んだら、悲しくて耐えられないでしょう」

 

[should 倒置の例]
Your family would be compensated by the insurance should anything happen to you.

「(万が一)あなたに何かがあった場合、ご家族は保険によって補償を受けられます」

 


【shouldとwere toのニュアンスの違い】

共に可能性の低いニュアンスを与える”were to”と”should”のニュアンスの違いについて説明します。

一言で言うと、”should”より”were to”の方が限りなく可能性が低いです。

たとえば、「もし太陽がある日消滅したら」や先ほどの例の「全ての人間が消えたら」は起こる可能性は限りなく低いです。ほぼあり得ないですよね。このような場合はwere toを使います。

shouldの場合は、例を見てもわかるとおり、まだ「ありうる」範囲での「万が一」なのがわかると思います。たとえば「あなたが死んだら」や「気が変わったら」は、可能性は低くても現実の生活の中で起こりうることですよね。

 


本日は倒置と”were to” “should”について説明しました。

それではまた!

TikTok and Its Influence in Year 2020

Hello there, I hope you are doing well.

A new update regarding the Go To Campaign has been released.

Read what’s below to find out more!

 

https://japantoday.com/category/national/Japan-to-suspend-Go-To-Travel-campaign-for-whole-country-from-Dec-28-Jan-11

Following the latest news regarding the exclusion (排除) of Sapporo and Osaka from the Go To Campaign, the government now plans on suspending the whole campaign entirely from the 28th of December to the 11th of January. As the country is facing its third wave, local government officials have encouraged establishments to close earlier than usual, as well. Traveling within the country isn’t banned, but highly discouraged.

 

ー初めにー

Today’s Fill-In-The-Blanks Quiz:

Here’s last week’s song:

 

(Fast forward to 1:24)

One thousand tired people all scattered like rats

And there’s a drunk man sleeping in a pile of trash

He hears the sounds of karaoke and a Mercedes Benz

He wakes up and checks his reflection in a broken glass

 

Here’s this week’s song:

(Fast forward to 1:44)

But _____ are breaking, the ____ are raging on

And I have_____ my glasses off

You got me ________, and you’re turning it into a ____

A half empty ____; Don’t make me laugh, I’ll….

 

ー続いてー

 

Today’s Idiom:

“rose-colored glasses”

 

This is not a common metaphor (隠喩), but it’s quite interesting! This phrase means “to look at something optimistically”. Something that would be great for all of us to do, especially during the situation we’re facing. For me, this song helps me see the world through rose-colored glasses:

Just be careful with how you use it or how others use it because it could also be meant negatively or sarcastically (冷笑的)

 

Here’s a sample dialogue:

A: Looking at the break-up through rose-colored glasses, I can finally do what I love again. Like playing tennis and baking…

B: Yeah, I agree! You can also start playing video games again!

A: Oh, no.. we used to play video games together! I miss her now!

I hope this helps!

 

ー最後にー

Today’s Column:

https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20201216-how-tiktok-changed-the-world-in-2020

No one can disregard the fact that the phone application, “TikTok” has significantly played  a huge role in 2020. Perhaps the Coronavirus has helped it become more popular. It has made a lot of people turn into content creators, and businesses advertise their products. It has also become famous because of its feud against the US and how it’s against their online privacy rules. Do you agree or disagree with this?

 

Remember to take care of yourself and stay safe.

Ryo